By Fred Singleton

ISBN-10: 0521640695

ISBN-13: 9780521640695

It is a moment variation of the profitable research of Finland within the English language. a quick heritage of Finland lines the old improvement of the rustic from its cost by means of the Finns within the first millennium advert to the current time, exploring Finland's past reference to Sweden, the complicated dating with Russia that has ruled Finnish heritage long ago centuries, and the postwar achievements of the second one republic. This moment version has been revised and up to date through Emeritus Professor A. F. Upton, a number one pupil of Scandinavian historical past. It covers the effect of the break-up of the Soviet Union and brings occasions as much as Finland's admission to the eu Union in 1995.

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However, Gustavus Adolphus soon embarked on the military expeditions in Germany which became part of what was later known as the Thirty Years War. To the burden of taxation, which bore heavily on the Finnish farmers, were added the imposition of conscription - which deprived many farms of their labour. When war broke out on the eastern frontier, the Finns bore the cost of quartering and supplying the troops stationed in the country, and suffered the destruction which ensued when fighting broke out on the soil of Finland.

During the early sixteenth century the effective ruler of Finland was Bielke, son of Erik Ture who, as lord of Viipuri, was responsible for the defence of the eastern frontier. By skilful diplomacy and a strong commercial sense, he managed to keep at bay the pressure from the Hanseatic merchants, Teutonic knights and Swedish and Danish rulers who were attempting to involve Finland in war with Russia. Bielke managed to keep the trade routes to Russia open and to secure from the Muscovites a re-affirmation of the Pahkinasaari line as far as the eastern boundary of Finland.

They were divided between the three main groups - the Suomalaiset, the Hamalaiset and the Karjalaiset who were often in conflict amongst themselves. The legends tell of a crusade, led by King Erik of Sweden (accompanied by Bishop Henry of Uppsala) in 1155. Henry was an Englishman, originally a monk from Bury St Edmunds, one of three English clerics who had an influence on Finland at this time. The others were Nicholas Breakspear, who was later the first English Pope, and Bishop Thomas, who subdued the Hamalaiset in the early thirteenth century.

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A Short History of Finland by Fred Singleton


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