By Jamie Hubbard
Even with the typical view of Buddhism as non-dogmatic and tolerant, the historic checklist preserves many examples of Buddhist thinkers and events that have been banned as heretical or subversive. The San-chieh (Three degrees) was once a favored and influential chinese language Buddhist stream through the Sui and Tang sessions, counting robust statesmen, imperial princes, or even an empress, Empress Wu, between its buyers. In spite, or maybe accurately simply because, of its proximity to energy, the San-chieh flow ran afoul of the experts and its teachings and texts have been formally proscribed quite a few occasions over a several-hundred-year background. as a result of those suppressions San-chieh texts have been misplaced and little information regarding its teachings or historical past is offered. the current paintings, the 1st English examine of the San-chieh circulate, makes use of manuscripts came upon at Tun-huang to check the doctrine and institutional practices of this move within the higher context of Mahayana doctrine and perform. through viewing San-Chieh within the context of Mahayana Buddhism, Hubbard finds it to be faraway from heretical and thereby increases vital questions about orthodoxy and canon in Buddhism. He exhibits that a few of the hallmark rules and practices of chinese language Buddhism locate an early and distinctive expression within the San-chieh texts.
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216. 26 / hsin-hsing— a buddhist heretic? not been as well commented on as the Buddhist involvement in ³nancial activities, economic enterprise, military operations, and the like, Chinese monks have also often been noted for their dhðta practice. Chih-i and his disciples, for example, are well known for advocating the practices, as is Huitsan, mentioned above in connection with Hsin-hsing’s seeking to receive the novice ordination. 91 There are many different lists of dhðta practices, typically made up of either twelve or thirteen practices that deal with clothing, food, and shelter.
16 / hsin-hsing— a buddhist heretic? Hui-jih ½Õ, and the Hung-shan e3. ”54 The widespread inµuence of the movement that Hsin-hsing began is also evident from records of the Inexhaustible Storehouse, which both attracted throngs from all over the empire as well as established branches throughout the provinces (see chapter 8). From its origins in the rigorous communities of monastic Buddhist practice of the north to its establishment in the imperial capital, and in spite of the of³cial hostility that it encountered, the religious community founded by Hsin-hsing µourished in Ch’ang-an for well over one hundred years, and continued to exist perhaps as late as the tenth century (see chapter 8).
From its origins in the rigorous communities of monastic Buddhist practice of the north to its establishment in the imperial capital, and in spite of the of³cial hostility that it encountered, the religious community founded by Hsin-hsing µourished in Ch’ang-an for well over one hundred years, and continued to exist perhaps as late as the tenth century (see chapter 8). At this juncture we might pause brieµy to ask what sort of social organization best characterizes Hsin-hsing’s community. As we have seen, the earliest references to Hsin-hsing’s community are i pu bH (“new sect, branch, faction, division, or offshoot”), pu chung HL (“congregation, society, group, community”), t’u chung 6L (“group of followers, supporters”), shan chih shih 3FÆ (“spiritual companions”), and p’u t’i chih yu ¬Øîº (“comrades in awakening”).
Absolute Delusion, Perfect Buddhahood: The Rise and Fall of a Chinese Heresy by Jamie Hubbard