By Hywel Williams

ISBN-10: 0857383388

ISBN-13: 9780857383389

The 500 years that separate the mid-tenth century from the mid-15th century represent a severe and formative interval within the background of Europe. This was once the age of the method of felony and armed forces legal responsibility referred to as 'feudalism', and of the beginning and consolidation of robust kingdoms in England, France and Spain; it used to be an period of urbanization and the growth of exchange, of the development of the good Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals, of courtly romance and the artwork of the troubadour, and of the founding of celebrated seats of studying in Paris, Oxford and Bologna. however it used to be additionally an epoch characterized by means of brutal army event within the launching of armed pilgrimages to disencumber Jerusalem from Muslim keep watch over, of the brutal dynastic clash of the Hundred Years' warfare and of the devastating pandemic of the Black loss of life. In a chain of scholarly yet available articles - followed through an array of lovely and real photographs of the period, plus timelines, maps, boxed good points and reveal rates - distinct historian Hywel Williams sheds revelatory mild on each element of a wealthy and complicated interval of ecu heritage. Ottonians and Salians; upward thrust of the Capetians; Normans in England; beginning of the city-states; The Normans in Sicily; the 1st campaign; The Investiture contest; The Hohenstaufen; The Angevin Empire; 12th-century Renaissance; Triumph of the Capetians; The 3rd campaign; The Albigensian campaign; the respect of Islamic Spain; the dominion of Naples; The Hundred Years battle I; The Hundred Years struggle II; Avignon and the Schism; The Golden Age of Florence; The Reconquista; Popes, Saints and Heretics; Medieval society; Medieval tradition; Medieval war.

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THE OTTONIAN ARTISTIC LEGACY The Ottonian rulers’ artistic patronage was directed toward projects that would illustrate and reinforce their imperial ideology. Religious foundations, such as the Abbey of Corvey in Westphalia and the monastery of Reichenau on Lake Constance, benefited from direct royal sponsorship, and the illuminated manuscripts produced by their scriptoria contain magnificent representations of the emperors being crowned by Christ. The style of Ottonian manuscripts built on the earlier Carolingian renaissance, an artistic and literary movement which owed its origins to Charlemagne’s patronage.

The king was formally canonized by the papacy in 1161, and thereby acquired his soubriquet. Edward’s remains were then placed in a shrine at Westminster Abbey in a ceremony that took place in 1163 with Aelred (1110–67), abbot of the Cistercian monastery at Rievaulx in Yorkshire, preaching the sermon. Aelred wrote his own version of Edward’s life, and his many other works include a Genealogy of the Kings of the English which was partly intended to show that Henry II (r. 1154–89) was a true descendant of Anglo-Saxon kings.

The loyalties and identities of the great mass of the population were local and particular rather than general and uniform. Linguistic profusion emphasized further the plurality of cultures which barely communicated with each other. If the north was the land of the langue d’oil it was the langue d’oc that predominated in the south, and out of these two broad linguistic groups there emerged several distinctive dialects, such as Norman and Burgundian, Provençal and Languedocien. “Middle French” also existed by the 14th century, but this standardized language made few inroads in the south.

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Age of Chivalry: The Story of Medieval Europe, 950 to 1450 by Hywel Williams

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