By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche
The advent of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized clinical imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional photographs of the human physique, with monstrous distinction among sorts of smooth tissue. the iconic legacy of CT is, in spite of the fact that, the spur that it gave to the next advent of tomographic imaging options into diagnostic nuclear drugs and the terribly swift improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.
This booklet is a non-mathematical creation to the foundations underlying sleek clinical imaging, taking tomography as its principal topic. the 1st 3 chapters conceal the final ideas of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins smooth imaging, and a assessment of the most important matters concerned with radiation safety. the next chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The scientific function of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by using fictional medical histories. 3 appendices offer a extra mathematical history to the tomographic procedure, the foundations of mathematical Fourier equipment, and the maths of MRI.
This revised version contains new introductory sections at the correct physics of molecules quite often, and water, particularly. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. a number of figures have additionally been revised.
The publication is meant to supply a vast introductory historical past to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate taking into account focusing on clinical physics, and the scientific scholar or clinician utilizing tomographic strategies in examine and scientific perform.
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Extra info for An introduction to the principles of medical imaging
If we obtain projections covering 360° then we will have sampled K-space on a closelyspaced set of lines or spokes. We now know how the slice can be decomposed into waves along any direction. 5 The Central Slice Theorem. The projection, P(x′ ), of the slice through the object is obtained by moving a fine X-ray beam across the slice at the angle shown in the left panel. A 1D Fourier transform of P(x′ ) yields one profile through the 2D Fourier transform of µ(X, Y ) as shown in the right panel. The line in Fourier space makes the same angle with the K axes as the original projection direction does to a set of axes established in the real space slice.
CT, SPECT and PET use a slightly different method that has particular advantages for these technologies. Here the method is filtered backprojection. 7. Filtered backprojection is rather similar to our simple scheme since it doesn’t involve the explicit use of a Fourier transform–inverse manipulation. Instead it makes use of a mathematical operation called convolution, but derived directly from Fourier. In filtered backprojection each projection is first multiplied by (convoluted with) a mathematical function before backprojection.
The units employ teams comprising medical, engineering and mathematical staff both to maintain routine clinical work and undertake research into new methods using these machines. MRI is a very flexible and, in principle, cheap technology that lends itself very well to miniaturisation and specialisation. Thus, whereas MR investigations of limbs have at present to be performed in the special units, Introduction xlv in the future it seems likely that small low field dedicated MR systems will become available for use in small clinics.
An introduction to the principles of medical imaging by Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche