By Gerd Nonneman
Within the post-9/11 weather, the position of heart jap and North African (MENA) states in Europe’s local defense setting and overseas politics has turn into greater than ever a spotlight for consciousness, yet is still ill-understood. This booklet offers a framework for the research of center jap overseas rules quite often, and for realizing those states’ relatives with Europe particularly. The e-book fills a niche within the literature on Euro-Middle jap family via adopting a south-to-north viewpoint, utilizing the instruments of international coverage research to ascertain the determinants of the overseas regulations of the MENA states themselves: basically therefore can one wish to reach at a real realizing of what underlies those states’ evolving coverage orientations and behavior in the direction of Europe. the quantity starts off via laying out a conceptual framework for research, and interpreting the household, local, and foreign environments that situation MENA overseas guidelines. real coverage output is then systematically investigated via quite a lot of kingdom case reports starting from the Maghreb and the Mashreq to the Gulf and Turkey. Europe is taken care of all through either as a goal of these international rules, and as a part of the surroundings that shapes them. the results of a two-year venture subsidized by way of the ecu collage Institute’s Mediterranean Programme, the e-book is helping bridge the divide among center East services and the self-discipline of diplomacy. The systematic comparative research of MENA states’ international coverage with certain connection with Europe throws new gentle on questions about ‘Third international’ international coverage.
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Extra info for Analysing Middle Eastern Foreign Policies: The Relationship With Europe
75–88, as well as the contributions from Jon Marks, Grahame Thompson and Bernard Hoekman in the same volume. 14. Hunt, ‘Development Economics, the Washington Consensus, and the European–Mediterranean Partnership Initiative’, p. 30. 15. See Michael Barnett, Dialogues in Arab Politics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998); Stephen Walt, The Origin of Alliances (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987); F. Gregory Gause III, ‘Systemic Approaches to Middle East International Relations,’ in International Studies Review 1:1, Spring 1999, pp.
44 A ﬁnal observation is the imbalance which has been inherent in the ‘Partnership’. Instead, EU agendas and structures have remained central, with southern Mediterranean states essentially acceding to, modestly amending, or rejecting EU initiatives and formats. The recognition shown in EU policy documents since 2003 (from the New Neighbourhood policy to the paper on strengthening relations with the Arab world) of the need to address this and foster a greater sense of ‘ownership’ on the part of the southern partner countries, seems unlikely to reverse the underlying situation.
When it did, its outcome would certainly have been different. Nor is it likely that without the combined effects of these developments, alongside the internal dynamics of the intifada in Palestine, there would have been a ‘peace process’, however ﬂawed, that in its turn drastically affected the policy options of regional states. Similarly, the combined effects of the election of George W. Bush as US President, and September 11, leading to a different US policy stance in general and to the military overthrow of Saddam Hussein in particular, brought both new strains to MENA governments (US pressure in one direction, domestic and regional pressures in another), as well as offering some opportunities – even if the question of whether or how to make use of such opportunities needed careful weighing up against the multi-level balance of other threats and resources.
Analysing Middle Eastern Foreign Policies: The Relationship With Europe by Gerd Nonneman