By Sandra Dawson (auth.)
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This suggests that one could expand Goldthorpe's typology to include a fourth 'cosmopolitan' approach which is characteristic of people expecting to achieve significant extrinsic and intrinsic rewards from their work and who refer to their professional colleagues, both within and outside their employing organisation, for support and identification. It should be noted, however, that not all professionally trained people necessarily adopt a cosmopolitan approach to work; they may in fact have jobs which fit directly into a 'bureaucratic', 'local' mode and adjust their motivation accordingly.
Job enlargement is an alternative strategy which involves increasing the number of tasks which any individual will do so that she has sight of a clear finished product as well as some discretion in the sequencing of actions. People 25 The research findings on job redesign are inconclusive, on both efficiency and humanitarian grounds. In general it seems that the schemes are most successful in 'efficiency' terms when managements are highly committed to them, when employees positively favour and desire their introduction, when workers have been involved in discussions prior to their introduction (Englestad, 1972) and when workers are given clear goals, clear feedback on performance and control over their performance.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Variety Sequence Timing Pace Quality Specialisation Interdependence Partialness Performance 13. Monitoring 14. Accountability Specified Medium High Very small part Number of records made, accuracy of records Supervisor Supervisor intervenes Maintain electrical equipment in good order Diagnosing and rectifying faults Craft tools Moderate Some leeway 5-200 minutes Selfdetermined but output monitored Specified Medium Medium Whole part Supervisor's! user's assessment Success of work Supervisor Supervisor intervenes Write programs for in-house users Thinking, writing Computer Moderate Great leeway Open Self-determined but output monitored Open Low Low Whole part Long-term success of programs Self/Manager Self/Manager intervenes Discretion and control Underlying much of this discussion about job requirements has been the extent to which, for each job element, the job-holder has discretion and, conversely, the extent to which he/she is subject to external control.
Analysing Organisations by Sandra Dawson (auth.)