By Jules H. Gilder
The Apple / / sequence of pcs represents probably the most flexible and robust domestic pcs on hand. If you may have used your desktop for it slow, you have most likely turn into rather conversant in Applesoft easy. that is stable, simply because when you recognize that, this publication will assist you to graduate from uncomplicated programming to meeting language programming. there are lots of purposes to application your Apple in meeting language. before everything is pace. meeting language is set a hundred instances quicker than uncomplicated. in case you are deliberating writing video games or company courses that do sorting, velocity is of the essence and meeting language is a needs to. meeting language courses frequently additionally require much less reminiscence. therefore you could squeeze extra advanced courses right into a smaller volume of reminiscence. ultimately, meeting language courses provide you with a large amount of safety, simply because they're more challenging to track and alter. whereas meeting language is robust, it does not must be tricky to profit. in reality, in the event you can write courses in Applesoft uncomplicated, you are already half-way domestic. This e-book assumes you recognize easy and completely not anything approximately meeting language or computer language. each attempt has been made to jot down in nontechnical language and to set the chapters out in a logical demeanour, introducing new options in digestible items as and once they are wanted, instead of devoting complete chapters to express items.
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Additional resources for Apple IIc and IIe Assembly Language
Program 3 uses this area. 3 Place machine code in the input buffer. 25 Program 3 10 REM ** PLACE M/C IN THE INPUT BUFFER ** 20 REM ** FROM S280 TO S2FF (640 TO 767) ** 30 CODE = 640 40 FOR LOOP = 0 TO 5 50 READ BYTE 60 POKE CODE + LOOP ,BYTE 70 NEXT LOOP 80 90 REM ** M/C DATA ** REM SA9, SCI -LDA #SC1 100 DATA 169, 193 110 DATA 32, 237, 253: REM S20, SED, SFD -JSR 65005 -RTS 120 DATA 96 REMS60 130 HOME 140 CALL CODE To summarize then, the following areas of memory can be considered 'safe' for machine code: 1.
_ _ _ _ _ _ Not used = 1 always. ' - - - - - - - - - - Overflow = 1 If overflow occurred. ' - - - - - - - - - - Negative = 1 If result negative. 1 Status register flags. Bit 7: The Negative flag (N) In signed binary, the Negative flag is used to determine the sign of the number. If the flag is set (N= 1) the result is negative. If the flag is clear (N=O) the result is positive. 31 However, a whole host of other instructions condition this particular flag , including all the arithmetic and logical functions.
The following program asks for a decimal value (less than 255) and prints its two's complement value in hex: Program 12 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 REM •• TWO'S COMPLEMENT CONVERTER •• CODE = 768 FOR LOOP =0 TO 7 READ BYTE POKE CODE + LOOP, BYTE NEXT LOOP REM·· M/C DATA·· DATA 56 DATA 169,0 DATA 229,251 DATA 133,252 DATA 96 140 150 HOME 160 170 180 190 200 210 REM S38 REM SA9, $00 REM SE5, SFB REM S85, SFC REM S60 INPUT "NUMBER TO BE CONVERTED";A IF A > 255 THEN PRINT "ERROR" : GOTO 160 POKE 251, A CALL CODE PRINT "THE TWO'S COMPLEMENT VALUE IS :": PRINT PEEK(252) The meaning of each line is as follows: Lines 20-60 Line 90 Line 100 Line 110 Line 120 Line 130 Lines 150-160 Line 170 Line 180 Line 190 Lines 200-210 48 -SEC -LDA#O -SBC SFB -STA $FC -RTS Assemble machine code.
Apple IIc and IIe Assembly Language by Jules H. Gilder